# Haskell operators I have trouble with

April 19, 2017

The Haskell $, . , and => operators.

## $

Replaces parentheses.

All of the following are equivalent (per Michael Steele’s answer on Stack Overflow):

```
putStrLn (show (1 + 1))
putStrLn (show $ 1 + 1)
putStrLn $ show (1 + 1)
putStrLn $ show $ 1 + 1
(putStrLn . show) (1 + 1)
putStrLn . show $ 1 + 1
(putStrLn . show . (+ 1)) 1
putStrLn . show . (+ 1) $ 1
```

It’s type is:

```
Prelude> :type ($)
($) :: (a -> b) -> a -> b
```

- a function that maps type a to type b
- a value of type a
- output is a value of type b.

## .

A Unix pipe for functions.

That is, feed the output of one function to the input of another.

For example, instead of `let fn x = f (g x)`

you can write
`let fn = f . g`

.

Note the second version doesn’t mention `x`

. In this style,
you don’t mention the input variable(s).

As another example, instead of `f x = x + 1`

you write `f = (+ 1)`

.

Confusingly, this is called writing in a pointfree style. “Pointfree” as in no input variables (“points” in topology).

It’s type is:

```
Prelude> :type (.)
(.) :: (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c
```

## =>

“is an instance of”, but you read it right to left.

For example, `(==) :: (Eq a) => a -> a -> Bool`

is read “for every type a that is an instance of Eq”.
Type Classes and Overloading, *A Gentle Introduction to Haskell, Version 98*.

Here’s an example from Scotty: `jsonData :: FromJSON a => ActionM a`

.

Frankly, I’m still not 100% sure how to read this. My best guess is:

- For every type
`a`

that is an instance of`FromJSON`

- you have (
`=>`

) - an operation named
`jsonData`

, which returns an`ActionM a`

And this one is is not an operator, as it doesn’t have a type:

```
Prelude> :t (=>)
```:1:2: error: parse error on input ‘=>’

Tags: haskell